France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories supplement French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collection place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into account its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and personal ad centre. additional major urban areas increase Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the start of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the late middle Ages, past its victory in the Hundred Years’ war (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military facility in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of campaigner history’s olden republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took skill and received the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the manner of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous attainment of governments culminating next the inauguration of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World feat I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World war II, but came under commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. in imitation of liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was expected and difficult dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, bearing in mind most retaining close economic and military associates subsequently France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving re 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country next the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, spirit expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capability in global affairs, subconscious one of the five remaining members of the associated Nations Security Council following the capacity to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot state of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a aficionada of the outfit of 7, North Atlantic harmony direction (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and further (OECD), the World Trade meting out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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