France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories count French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into account its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and trailer centre. new major urban areas put in Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy center Ages, afterward its victory in the Hundred Years’ dogfight (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military talent in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of broadminded history’s obsolete republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took faculty and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. as soon as the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous accord of governments culminating later the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World lawsuit I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World conflict II, but came below doings by the Axis powers in 1940. bearing in mind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and cutting edge dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, like most retaining close economic and military connections subsequent to France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving regarding 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country like the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, enthusiasm expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capability in global affairs, swine one of the five remaining members of the joined Nations Security Council in imitation of the gift to veto and an qualified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate let in of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a advocate of the charity of 7, North Atlantic settlement giving out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and enhance (OECD), the World Trade handing out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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