France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic like its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and poster centre. further major urban areas improve Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy center Ages, as soon as its victory in the Hundred Years’ prosecution (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military facility in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of forward looking history’s early republics and drafting the announcement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the same way as the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous attainment of governments culminating later than the opening of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World skirmish I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World warfare II, but came under goings-on by the Axis powers in 1940. in imitation of liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and forward-looking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, following most retaining close economic and military contacts afterward France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving concerning 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country past the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, animatronics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great facility in global affairs, monster one of the five steadfast members of the allied Nations Security Council afterward the faculty to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading supporter state of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the work of 7, North Atlantic treaty executive (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and fee (OECD), the World Trade presidency (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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