France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories append French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic when its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and announcement centre. new major urban areas tally Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the initiation of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European talent in the late center Ages, past its victory in the Hundred Years’ prosecution (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military skill in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of advanced history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and time-honored the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. with the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating gone the foundation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World warfare I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World clash II, but came under goings-on by the Axis powers in 1940. bearing in mind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and far ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, considering most retaining near economic and military contacts in imitation of France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving nearly 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country as soon as the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing faculty parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, activity expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great gift in global affairs, monster one of the five unshakable members of the united Nations Security Council behind the capability to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate disclose of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the activity of 7, North Atlantic agreement management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade direction (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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