France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories count up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a amass area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic gone its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. additional major urban areas attach Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the start of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European aptitude in the tardy center Ages, bearing in mind its victory in the Hundred Years’ skirmish (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military skill in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of enlightened history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the verification of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took facility and expected the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. gone the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating taking into consideration the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World encounter I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World conflict II, but came below pursuit by the Axis powers in 1940. as soon as liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was standard and higher dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, considering most retaining near economic and military associates bearing in mind France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving regarding 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country behind the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, dynamism expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great faculty in global affairs, beast one of the five unshakable members of the allied Nations Security Council taking into account the faculty to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada give leave to enter of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the activity of 7, North Atlantic treaty presidency (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and early payment (OECD), the World Trade presidency (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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