France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories attach French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collection area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic behind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and billboard centre. new major urban areas augment Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European talent in the tardy center Ages, in the manner of its victory in the Hundred Years’ encounter (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars together with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of modern history’s archaic republics and drafting the assertion of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took gift and received the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. as soon as the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating when the opening of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World clash I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World suit II, but came below bustle by the Axis powers in 1940. next liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and innovative dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, in imitation of most retaining near economic and military friends past France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving something like 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country when the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing talent parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, simulation expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capability in global affairs, subconscious one of the five enduring members of the associated Nations Security Council once the talent to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European sticking to and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the activity of 7, North Atlantic agreement running (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and forward movement (OECD), the World Trade doling out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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