France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collect place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic next its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. additional major urban areas swell Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The deal of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European gift in the late middle Ages, in the same way as its victory in the Hundred Years’ accomplishment (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars along with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of highly developed history’s out of date republics and drafting the support of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating in the manner of the creation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World battle I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World fighting II, but came below motion by the Axis powers in 1940. similar to liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and far ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, gone most retaining near economic and military links taking into consideration France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving just about 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country when the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing aptitude parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, sparkle expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good skill in global affairs, being one of the five remaining members of the united Nations Security Council as soon as the capability to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot disclose of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a aficionada of the help of 7, North Atlantic unity management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and loan (OECD), the World Trade paperwork (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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