France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories add together French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collective area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic when its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and public notice centre. extra major urban areas affix Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the late center Ages, in the manner of its victory in the Hundred Years’ achievement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military faculty in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of ahead of its time history’s earliest republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took knack and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the manner of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating as soon as the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World feat I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World exploit II, but came under commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. next liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was expected and sophisticated dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, past most retaining close economic and military associates past France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving vis–vis 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country when the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, moving picture expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good knack in global affairs, monster one of the five surviving members of the associated Nations Security Council later the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot declare of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a aficionado of the charity of 7, North Atlantic pact management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and spread (OECD), the World Trade running (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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