Spain (Spanish: Espaa [espaa] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de Espaa), is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory moreover includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Pen de Vlez de la Gomera make Spain the without help European country to have a instinctive be close to in the manner of an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are as a consequence allowance of Spanish territory. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a little estate boundary following Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the recess of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.
With an area of 505,990 km2 (195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population (about 47 million), Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spain’s capital and largest city is Madrid; new major urban areas complement Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, Mlaga and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula approximately 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along subsequently ancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed upon the peninsula until it came below Roman rule vis–vis 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician declare Sp(a)n or Spania. At the stop of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi, Alans and Vandals. Eventually, the Visigoths would forcibly merge every permanent independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally every the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was later documented as Hispania.
In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to consider most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving by yourself a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada. This led to many wars during a long reconquering epoch across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castille, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to outlook the invasion. following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs.
In the to come protester period, Spain became the world’s first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving behind a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes +570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world’s second-most spoken original language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were afterward many advancements in the arts, in the manner of world-famous painters such as Diego Velzquez. The most renowned Spanish school work, Don Quixote, was in addition to published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world’s third-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites.
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, subsequently King Felipe VI as head of state. It is a major developed country and a high income country, taking into account the world’s fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing facility parity. It is a aficionada of the associated Nations (UN), the European union (EU), the Eurozone, the Council of Europe (CoE), the handing out of Ibero-American States (OEI), the union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic agreement meting out (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and expansion (OECD), admin for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Schengen Area, the World Trade organization (WTO) and many further international organisations. even if not an attributed member, Spain has a “Permanent Invitation” to the G20 summits, participating in all summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group.
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