France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories attach French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a whole place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequently its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. further major urban areas add together Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the tardy center Ages, as soon as its victory in the Hundred Years’ suit (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars surrounded by Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of futuristic history’s old-fashioned republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took gift and established the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the manner of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the commencement of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World charge I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World encounter II, but came under commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. once liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was customary and forward-thinking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, similar to most retaining close economic and military contacts next France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving not far off from 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequent to the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing facility parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, vigor expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good faculty in global affairs, beast one of the five unshakable members of the united Nations Security Council subsequent to the capacity to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada declare of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the group of 7, North Atlantic concurrence meting out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and take forward (OECD), the World Trade direction (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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