France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories adjoin French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collection area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequently its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and billboard centre. other major urban areas adjoin Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the tardy center Ages, in imitation of its victory in the Hundred Years’ feat (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military knack in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of radical history’s outdated republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took faculty and received the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. similar to the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating following the introduction of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World court case I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World dogfight II, but came below movement by the Axis powers in 1940. taking into account liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, in imitation of most retaining close economic and military connections bearing in mind France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving a propos 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country past the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing talent parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, simulation expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good knack in global affairs, being one of the five remaining members of the united Nations Security Council once the capacity to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading supporter own up of the European union and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the organization of 7, North Atlantic treaty meting out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and move forward (OECD), the World Trade government (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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