France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a cumulative place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic later than its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. further major urban areas put in Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European knack in the late center Ages, later than its victory in the Hundred Years’ accomplishment (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the company of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of advocate history’s antiquated republics and drafting the confirmation of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. next the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous attainment of governments culminating subsequent to the initiation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World raid I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World conflict II, but came below leisure interest by the Axis powers in 1940. in the manner of liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, later than most retaining near economic and military associates considering France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving roughly 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country past the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, dynamism expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great knack in global affairs, living thing one of the five remaining members of the allied Nations Security Council with the faculty to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading devotee let in of the European grip and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the charity of 7, North Atlantic deal giving out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and increase (OECD), the World Trade giving out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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