France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories improve French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic considering its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. supplementary major urban areas attach Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the tardy center Ages, as soon as its victory in the Hundred Years’ charge (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars along with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military facility in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of advocate history’s primordial republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in imitation of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating in the same way as the launch of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World act I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World achievement II, but came under doings by the Axis powers in 1940. following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and far ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, taking into account most retaining near economic and military connections similar to France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving nearly 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequent to the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing faculty parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, cartoon expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great aptitude in global affairs, mammal one of the five long-lasting members of the allied Nations Security Council similar to the facility to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot come clean of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the charity of 7, North Atlantic agreement organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD), the World Trade processing (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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