France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enlarge French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequently its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. extra major urban areas count Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the start of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The deal of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European knack in the late middle Ages, like its victory in the Hundred Years’ stroke (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military talent in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s archaic republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took gift and expected the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating as soon as the opening of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World proceedings I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World battle II, but came below pursuit by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequently liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and far ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, subsequent to most retaining close economic and military connections past France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving all but 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequent to the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, moving picture expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capability in global affairs, subconscious one of the five steadfast members of the associated Nations Security Council in the same way as the facility to veto and an endorsed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot acknowledge of the European sticking to and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the action of 7, North Atlantic deal management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and money up front (OECD), the World Trade government (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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