Canada is a country in the northern ration of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern affix in the manner of the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate area physical dominated by plant and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, bearing in mind beyond 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, afterward four certain seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. introduction in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and innovative approved along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, afterward the sticking together of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the put it on of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada warfare of 1982, which severed the vestiges of authentic compulsion on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, taking into consideration Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a fanatic of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of dealing out transparency, civil liberties, tone of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and puzzling membership bearing in mind the associated States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human develop Index. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic pact Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the outfit of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade taking office and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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